Horse-chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum
Horse chestnut is a relatively high beautiful tree with a powerful root system. The crown is densely rounded, rounded, sometimes conical. The leaves are opposite, large palm, dark green. The flowers are white, relatively large, irregular, gathered in conical, multicolored, dense and large upright grape brooms. The fruit is decoupled, with sharp spikes, a fleshy box, 1 to 3 nests, copper-brown, glossy seed. It blooms in April-May, immediately after or almost parallel to it, and sometimes the second time in autumn. The seeds ripen in August - October.
The wild growing plant is found in the wet shady deciduous forests up to 500 m above sea level. But it is grown massively as a park and alley decorative tree, because it is shade-resistant and also grows in sunny places. Propagated with seeds sown in autumn.
Usable part is cortex (Hippocastani) and chestnut (Semen Castanae). Picking the bark for March-April, and the seeds in September - October. The bark was white during the juice movement of the plant. For this purpose, trees intended for felling or for pruning are used. The seeds (chestnuts) are harvested after their full maturation. Then the fruit boxes break and the seeds fall out.
Root is mainly used as a raw material in the chemical-pharmaceutical industry to produce esculin, used to stop bleeding - internal and external hemorrhoids, varicose veins, etc. Esculin is used as a curative and in the case of damage from the impact of ionizing radiation at doses exceeding the usual limit. Externally, chestnut extract is recommended for neuralgia, myalgia, skin inflammation, rheumatism, etc.
The wood of horse chestnut is used with the furniture production, for turning products and others.